Geologic dating principles


The principle of intrusive relationships concerns crosscutting intrusions.In geology, when an igneous intrusion cuts across a formation of sedimentary rock, it can be determined that the igneous intrusion is younger than the sedimentary rock.When information derived from two outcrops is integrated, the time interval they represent is probably greater than that of each alone.Presumably if all the world’s outcrops were integrated, sediments representing all of geologic time would be available for examination.As organisms exist at the same time period throughout the world, their presence or (sometimes) absence may be used to provide a relative age of the formations in which they are found.Based on principles laid out by William Smith almost a hundred years before the publication of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, the principles of succession were developed independently of evolutionary thought.

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The principle of uniformitarianism states that the geologic processes observed in operation that modify the Earth's crust at present have worked in much the same way over geologic time.A fundamental principle of geology advanced by the 18th century Scottish physician and geologist James Hutton, is that "the present is the key to the past." In Hutton's words: "the past history of our globe must be explained by what can be seen to be happening now." The principle of Original Horizontality states that the deposition of sediments occurs as essentially horizontal beds.Observation of modern marine and non-marine sediments in a wide variety of environments supports this generalization (although cross-bedding is inclined, the overall orientation of cross-bedded units is horizontal).The principle of superposition states that a sedimentary rock layer in a tectonically undisturbed sequence is younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it.

Logically a younger layer cannot slip beneath a layer previously deposited.

This principle allows sedimentary layers to be viewed as a form of vertical time line, a partial or complete record of the time elapsed from deposition of the lowest layer to deposition of the highest bed.


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  • Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale profil de paulette60

    paulette60

    This document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale.…